A denialism taxonomy

FLICC (fake experts, logical fallacies, impossible expectations, cherry picking, conspiracy theories).

Icons representing different denial techniques.
Icons representing each of the FLICC points, under the title ‘Techniques of Science Denial.’
Icons representing each of the FLICC points, under the title ‘Techniques of Science Denial.’
A tree showing the relationships between each of the techniques in the expanded FLICC universe.
A tree showing the relationships between each of the techniques in the expanded FLICC universe.
The ad-hominem icon, a human head in crosshairs.
The ad-hominem icon, a human head in crosshairs.
The anecdote icon, a speech-bubble containing a double-quote mark.
The anecdote icon, a speech-bubble containing a double-quote mark.
The blowfish icon, a blowfish.
The blowfish icon, a blowfish.
The bulk fake experts icon: a group of three human figures.
The bulk fake experts icon: a group of three human figures.
The cherry picking icon: two cherries joined by a stem.
The cherry picking icon: two cherries joined by a stem.
The conspiracy theories icon: a human head topped with a tinfoil hat that is deflecting lightning bolts.
The conspiracy theories icon: a human head topped with a tinfoil hat that is deflecting lightning bolts.
The fake debate icon, a set of balance-scales.
The fake debate icon, a set of balance-scales.
The immune to evidence icon, a shield.
The immune to evidence icon, a shield.
The impossible evidence icon, an arrow pointing up, blocked by a dotted line.
The impossible evidence icon, an arrow pointing up, blocked by a dotted line.
The magnified minority icon: a pair of faces facing one another in profile, one much smaller than the other.
The magnified minority icon: a pair of faces facing one another in profile, one much smaller than the other.
The moving goalposts icon, an American football goalpost.
The moving goalposts icon, an American football goalpost.
The nefarious intent icon, a horned devil.
The nefarious intent icon, a horned devil.
The oversimplification icon, a funnel.
The oversimplification icon, a funnel.
The persecuted victim icon: a human figure on its knees, begging for mercy.
The persecuted victim icon: a human figure on its knees, begging for mercy.
The quote mining icon: a double quotation-mark.
The quote mining icon: a double quotation-mark.
An irregular quadrangle whose vertices are joined by different-sized circles.
An irregular quadrangle whose vertices are joined by different-sized circles.
The red herring icon: a fish.
The red herring icon: a fish.
The single cause icon: a triangle whose vertices are labeled A, B and C. A and B are joined to C by arrow-tipped dotted lines.
The single cause icon: a triangle whose vertices are labeled A, B and C. A and B are joined to C by arrow-tipped dotted lines.
The slippery slope icon: a human figure slipping down tilted ground.
The slippery slope icon: a human figure slipping down tilted ground.
The slothful induction icon: a sloth hanging from a branch.
The slothful induction icon: a sloth hanging from a branch.
The something must be wrong icon: a document icon slashed by a diagonal line.
The something must be wrong icon: a document icon slashed by a diagonal line.
The Straw Man icon: a scarecrow.
The Straw Man icon: a scarecrow.

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